Ambiguous。 ambiguous

Ambiguity

ambiguous

The test is limited in one way. Partee, Barbara H. a vague sense of obligation stresses a puzzling, mystifying quality. If there is no such evidence, the court may hear evidence of the subjective intention or understanding of the parties to clarify the ambiguity. ———, 2004. Ambiguity is a powerful tool of. Dover Publications Inc. : 775 Expressions [ ] Ambiguous expressions often appear in physical and mathematical texts. Call me a taxi, please. Of course, sentences can have many of these properties at once. Domain restriction traditionally is treated as a matter of context sensitivity rather than ambiguity. 7 can express• 0e6 defined to designate the interval 950,000 to 1,050,000 , and that as non-volatile storage devices began to commonly exceed 1 GB in capacity where the ambiguity begins to routinely impact the second significant digit , GB and TB almost always mean 10 9 and 10 12. sup. This can mean at least one of four distinct things:• While the synonyms and ambiguous are close in meaning, equivocal applies to language left open to differing interpretations with the intention of deceiving or evading. While in some cases nearly identical to ambiguous, implies a lack of clear formulation due to inadequate conception or consideration. Here are some examples of purportedly syntactic ambiguities. Ambiguity is important and it is worth examining what the phenomenon is and how it differs and relates to similar phenomena such as indexicality, polysemy, vagueness, and especially sense generality. But the relevant notion of multiple expression seem different from paradigmatic ambiguity in that the semantic values are very closely aligned. Kratzer, Angelika, 1977. Similar ambiguities come up in cases such as:• Dover Publications 1966 , p 27. Alternately, non-ambiguous emergencies e. It is in the knowledge of the genuine conditions of our life that we must draw our strength to live and our reason for acting". Consider• " In speech and writing, however, ambiguity can be a useful tool. Saka, Paul, 2007. , Direct Compositionality, Oxford: Oxford University Press. This may just go to show how hard it is to dis prove a claim to ambiguity using the tests. Aristotle, On Sophistical Refutations, Pickard-Cambridge trans. Static semantics usually treats the distinction between bound and free pronouns as a fundamental ambiguity; dynamic semantics relegates the distinction to an ambiguity in variable choice see Heim 1982, 1983, and Kamp 1981. The colours and the feathers are light. It can be more difficult, however, when the meanings are closely related. At least some modal auxiliaries and adverbs seem to allow for distinct senses such as metaphysical, deontic, doxastic and perhaps practical. Interestingly, there are views regarding vague language that treat vagueness as at least akin to ambiguity. [rho]. - The Awakening, This is a good example of syntactic ambiguity. Thanks to Paul Saka for detailed comments and helpful discussion that helped me produce the first revision of the entry. 101. The context in which an ambiguous word is used often makes it evident which of the meanings is intended. Sir 's illustration of the for 's is noted for its ambiguous central figure, whose head can be viewed as being a human male's face with a pointed nose and chin, or as being the head end of an actual , with the first two right "true" legs visible. McGraw-Hill, 2012• It is thus an attribute of any idea or statement whose meaning cannot be definitively resolved according to a rule or process with a finite number of steps. 1 Conjunction Reduction A standard test for ambiguity is to take two sentences that contain the purportedly ambiguous term and conjoin them by using the term only once in contexts where both meanings are encouraged. I love you just like you love me• , Journal of the American Medical Association, 12 Apr. You must eat a piece of cake. Frege noted this to be the main defect of natural language and a real obstacle to trying to formalize it as opposed to just using the formal language without translation from natural language. In many cases our best theory predicts an ambiguity despite the fact that no reasonable person would detect any meaning other than the clearly intended one. Several still do not have established notations. If I tell you that I am going to visit one of my sisters, what I say underspecifies which sister I am going to see. They also have distributive readings on which there were as many liftings of the piano as there were boys and at least two different deal brokerings respectively. ambiguity uncertainty in meaning. and R. Riches Philadelphia: Westminster, 1971 , 135 n. The sentence "We saw her duck" is also syntactically ambiguous. Chrysippus claimed at one point that every word is ambiguous—though by this he meant that the same person may understand a word spoken to him in many distinct ways. Its meaning is clear. Hoare, and J. Please help by. The politicians lifted the piano. 6 for an interesting account of the problem regarding representing ambiguity. In , statutes that contain ambiguous language are void for vagueness. Philosophers concerned with the relation between language and thought, particularly those who thought there was a language in which we think, concerned themselves with whether the language in which we think could contain ambiguous phrases. Philosophy [ ] Philosophers and other users of logic spend a lot of time and effort searching for and removing or intentionally adding ambiguity in arguments because it can lead to incorrect conclusions and can be used to deliberately conceal bad arguments. Linguistic forms [ ] Lexical ambiguity is contrasted with. In particularly phenomenology and existentialism , there is much greater tolerance of ambiguity, as it is generally seen as an integral part of the human condition. LFs can be thought of as trees, and the terminal nodes of the branches are taken from the lexicon. Thus, the description of some of the ambiguities as syntactic or structural rather than semantic can be somewhat controversial. See More. Logical Form: Its Structure and Derivation, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. , 1986. 3 The Analytic-Synthetic Distinction One long-standing issue about ambiguity is that it assumes a difference between something like sense and reference. This is often due to a modifying expression, such as a prepositional phrase, the application of which is unclear. More problematic are words whose senses express closely related concepts. An interesting case is the semantics of modals. Orthodoxy suggests movement of quantifiers at LF where quantifier scope is made explicit and unambiguous. The habitual reading describing how John favored utensil for eating breakfast vs. The New Testament exegete, , explains the way ambiguity functions in the Fourth Gospel. However, it is worth noting that other treatments abound. I love you just like someone else does• Bittner 2007, Jacobson 1999. The feathers are light. Zwicky, Arnold M. 150 fn. In a classic case, Raffles v. sup. Nunberg, Geoffrey, 1978. , 2002, 357—381. , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 139—169. Sometimes, courts decide the meaning of ambiguous language on the basis of who was responsible or at fault for the ambiguity. , New York: Academic Press. We will discuss testing for ambiguity below: for now, we will try to isolate ambiguity by separating it from other typical cases with which ambiguity is easily conflated. [ — ] The orthodox Catholic writer regularly employed paradox to tease out the meanings in common concepts which he found ambiguous or to reveal meaning often overlooked or forgotten in common phrases. Ambivalent refers to having mixed, contradictory, or more than one feeling about something the second portion of this word comes from the Latin valere, "to be strong, be worth". 35 can express a complaint that a car was paid for twice or the claim that I now own a car that is like yours. Frequently Asked Questions About ambiguous How is the word ambiguous different from other adjectives like it? If we face a putative counterexample to our favorite philosophical thesis, it is always open to us to protest that some key term is being used in a special sense, different from its use in the thesis. Partee, Barbara H. Similarly:• , 1984. However, for various reasons, several , and ambiguities remain. ' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Toronto and numbers and triadic relations exist. Fiengo, Robert and Robert May, 1994. The opposite of such ambiguous images are. However, in context, it can be pretty easy to make them pass some of the tests for ambiguity. The following, according to Russell, is ambiguous:• Choose the Right Synonym for ambiguous , , , , , , mean not clearly understandable. those grounded in the relationship between the Federal Government and the States under our Constitution. This extraneous fact necessitated the interpretation of an otherwise clear and definite term of the contract. For example:• i] [B. Usually, semantic and syntactic ambiguity go hand in hand. We thus seem to have ambiguity that depends on certain structural features of the sentence. Numbers exist. It is sometimes characterized as a phenomenon subsumable under ambiguity basically ambiguity where the meanings are tightly related but sometimes it is taken to be a different phenomenon altogether. Lexical ambiguity can be addressed by algorithmic methods that automatically associate the appropriate meaning with a word in context, a task referred to as. Reprinted in Portner and Partee eds. 210 fn. The following is clearly ambiguous:• Forms of Ambiguity In speech and writing, ambiguity isn't merely the absence of clarity. Finally, ambiguity is one important feature of our cognitive understanding and interpretative abilities. As mentioned above, conjunction reduction has been used to argue that collective-distributive ambiguities are due to an ambiguity in the subject phrase. [rho]. - "The Sick Rose," Blake leaves this poem open to a wealth of varying opinions regarding the meaning of "rose," "sick," "worm," and "bed of crimson joy. The situation is less clear with temporal and modal and other operators: many semantic theories treat tense and temporal adverbs as quantifiers, while some treat modal expression in this manner. , Stockton ends this story with a ton of ambiguity. Reprinted in Portner and Partee eds. If logic is to be free of issues that would complicate telling valid from non-valid arguments by form, detecting ambiguity is essential to logical representation of natural language arguments. This leaves a range of potential objects: utterances, utterances relative to a context, sentences, sentences relative to a context, sentences given discourse relations, inscriptions and a whole host of possibilities that need to be sorted out. In most , the operations of division and multiplication have equal priority and are executed from left to right. I broke the vase. Many Christians and Jews endorse Rudolf Otto's description of the sacred as 'mysterium tremendum et fascinans', the awe-inspiring mystery which fascinates humans. a vague sense of obligation. Frege, Gottlob, 1948 [1892]. Semantic and syntactic ambiguity [ ] occurs when a word, phrase or sentence, taken out of context, has more than one interpretation. and came out here for all these goddam checkups and stuff. However, we can get a reasonable grip on what Aristotle had in mind. Ockham, for example, was willing to countenance ambiguities in mental sentences of a language of thought but not mental terms in that language see Spade p. But if you're ambivalent about something, you can take it or leave it. For the notion of, and theoretic results about, syntactic ambiguity in artificial, such as computer , see. Other continental philosophers suggest that concepts such as life, nature, and sex are ambiguous. John and Jane met for lunch. Comedians have often found ambiguity useful in the misdirection essential to some forms of comedy. " Carroll, Lewis. "Reflexivity, Contradiction, Paradox and M. Wynia et al. On the other hand, in philosophical discourse, distinctions that are quite fine can be made that may well be missed by normal users of the language who are inclined to overlook or to be blind to differences in meaning that are slight. Groucho Marx's classic joke depends on a grammatical ambiguity for its humor, for example: "Last night I shot an elephant in my pajamas. 1 M where M is ambiguously 1,000,000 or 1,048,576 is less uncertain than the engineering value 1. 3 Binn. Atlas, Jay, 1989. See Davidson 1967, Gillon 1990, and Saka 2007 Ch. Well, I've certainly never tasted chicken cooked that way before! Fields. The language of such laws is considered so obscure and uncertain that a reasonable person cannot determine from a reading what the law purports to command or prohibit. Is the speaker asking someone to hail them a taxi or to be called a taxi? He would never understand. Often it is difficult to tell when the distinction in extension corresponds to an ambiguity in the meaning of the term. an unconscious man laying on a park bench make witnesses less likely to offer any sort of assistance, due to the fear that they may have misinterpreted the situation and acted unnecessarily. When this occurs, the court will admit as evidence extraneous proof of prior or contemporaneous agreements to determine the meaning of the ambiguous language. Barnes ed. Searle, John R. Vide generally, Bac. Kripke, Saul, 1977. 4 Definitional Tests Aristotle offers a test for ambiguity: try to construct a definition that encompasses both meanings and posit an ambiguity only if you fail. Fallacy Ambiguity also borders on another rhetorical device:. Computer science [ ] In , the , and were historically used in certain contexts to mean either the first three powers of 1024 1024, 1024 2 and 1024 3 contrary to the in which these units unambiguously mean one thousand, one million, and one billion. Fara, Delia Graff, 2000. Other times, they find it annoying and want you to just "come out with it. The U. 1 Deictic vs. In a creative writing piece, you'll be dealing with some sort of conflict, climax, and resolution. , Dordrecht: Foris, 115—143. However, compare:• This word may mean "doubtful or uncertain especially from obscurity or indistinctness," "capable of being understood in two or more possible senses or ways," and ". In the style, one uses roman letters to denote elementary functions, whereas variables are written using italics. This form of ambiguity is closely related to. 2001 In Mexico we follow the fraught, ambiguous journey of a Tijuana cop … caught between the ruthless, corrupt general … he works for and the DEA, which wants him to inform on his countrymen. This may be the result of scope, movement or binding, and the level at which the ambiguity is localized can involve full sentences or phrases. Dinosaurs ate kelp. Every man who read a book by Chomsky is happy. The used in allows the user to omit the multiplication symbol, but requires square brackets to indicate the argument of a function; square brackets are not allowed for grouping of expressions. Would we be surprised to find languages that used two separate words for the two alleged senses of a given word? On the first reading, the world-quantifier takes wide scope. Thus, our best theory may determine an ambiguity that is never actually expressed by a sincere utterance of the ambiguous sentence. The is often purposely ambiguous. The Generic Book, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Some will think he opposes taxes in general because they hinder economic growth. Fourth, ambiguity in the laws can undermine their applicability and our ability to obey them. Rarely, but occasionally, the different parsings of a syntactically ambiguous phrase result in the same meaning. The lexicon is highly productive and easily extended. Some creativity may allow 19 to function as a request but it is very difficult compared to 18. For example, your diet may be healthy not because it is failing to suffer from a disease but because it promotes your health. Other treat them as the operators or adverbs they appear to be. addressed directly by a binary machine register where a decimal interpretation makes no practical sense. It is tempting to treat these as ambiguities involving the modal term. The chicken is ready to eat. Toronto exists. 79 any. An alternative characterization involves fuzzy boundaries rather than borderline cases see Fara 2000, 47-48. Syntactic ambiguity Lexical Ambiguity Lexical ambiguity presents two or more possible meanings within a single word. There is a long-standing debate over whether the mechanism is primarily one of copying over at LF Fiengo and May 1994 , the result of expressing a lambda-abstracted predicate Sag, 1976; Williams, 1977 or the result of centering on a discourse referent see Hardt and Stone 1997. The purported availability of both readings suggests that sentences with negation and descriptions are sense-general rather than ambiguous, contradicting many standard assumptions about the computation of truth conditions. Turner ed. And the ethics which they have proposed to their disciples have always pursued the same goal. Janssen and M. 13 and 14 seem to be ambiguous between a negation that scopes over the sentence as a whole and one that scopes under the determiner phrase and over the predicate though see Strawson 1950.。 。 。 。 。 。 。

次の

What does ambiguous mean? definition and meaning

ambiguous

。 。 。 。 。 。 。

次の

Ambiguous legal definition of ambiguous

ambiguous

。 。 。 。 。

次の

ambiguous

ambiguous

。 。 。 。 。 。

次の

What does ambiguous mean? definition and meaning

ambiguous

。 。 。 。 。 。

次の

Ambiguity legal definition of ambiguity

ambiguous

。 。 。 。 。 。

次の